Chapter 7
Chapter 7 is designed for debtors who are having financial difficulties and are not able to repay their debts.
If your current monthly income is above the State Median income you will be required to perform a Means Test to determine if you are eligible for this type of bankruptcy relief. If you do not meet the requirements of the Means Test then you may be precluded from filing a Chapter 7 and have the option of converting to Chapter 13 or filing a Chapter 13.
Under Chapter 7 a Trustee takes possession of all your property. You may claim certain property as exempt under Federal and State laws. Our office will assist you in determining what is exempt. You can only exempt the value of property that is not subject to the liens of your creditors. The Trustee then liquidates the non-exempt property and uses the proceeds to pay off your creditors according to priorities of the Bankruptcy Code.
The purpose of filing a Chapter 7 is to obtain a discharge of your existing debts. If, however, you are found to have committed certain kinds of improper conduct described in the Bankruptcy Code, your discharge may be denied by the Court, and the purpose for which you filed the bankruptcy petition will be defeated.
Even if you receive a discharge, there are some debts that are not discharged under the law. Therefore, you may still be responsible for such debts as certain taxes and student loans, alimony and support payments, criminal restitution, and debts for death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated with alcohol or drugs.
Under certain circumstances you may be able to keep property that you have purchased subject to a valid security interest. Some of these options include what is called redemption and the renewal or reaffirmation of an existing pre-bankruptcy debt. Your attorney can explain the options that are available to you.
Chapter 13
Chapter 13 is designed for individuals with a regular and stable source of income who are temporarily unable to pay their debts but who desire to use their best efforts and good faith to pay them in installments over a period of time subject to the protections afforded by the Chapter 13 rules. You are only eligible for Chapter 13 if your debts do not exceed certain dollar amounts set forth in the Bankruptcy Code.
Under Chapter 13 you must file a plan with the Court to repay your creditors all or part of the money that you owe them, using your future earnings or by the disposition and/or abandonment of certain collateral such as land and motor vehicles. You are protected from your creditors in most cases upon the filing of your plan must be approved by the Court before it can take effect.
Under Chapter 13, unlike Chapter 7, you may keep all of your property, both exempt and non-exempt, as long as you continue to make payments under the plan.
After completion of payments under the plan, your debts are discharged except for any domestic support obligations, student loans, and certain taxes, among others.
Chapter 11
Chapter 11 is designed primarily for the reorganization of businesses but is also available to consumer debtors. Its provisions are quite complicated, and any decision for an individual to file a Chapter 11 petition should be reviewed with an attorney. Most Chapter 11 cases are simply too expensive for the great majority of consumer debtors. Most individuals are aware of the high profile Chapter 11 cases that have been filed in recent years by many of the commercial airlines.
Chapter 12
Chapter 12 is designed to permit family farmers to repay their debts over a period of time from future earnings and is in many ways similar to a Chapter 13. The eligibility requirements are restrictive, limiting its use to those whose income arises primarily from a family owned farm.
Non-Bankruptcy Options
Reputable credit counselors can advise you on managing your money and your debts. They may also be able to develop a plan to repay your debts. But, most credit counselors are not reputable and charge high fees and contributions that will cause you to fall deeper into debt. Furthermore, many misrepresent their non-profit status and/or their affiliations with religious or charitable organizations. The Law Office of John Rogers only recommends that a person seek the credit counseling services of a group that has been approved by the United States Trustee Department.
photo credit: James Cridland via photopin cc